Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY )

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY )

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the flagship scheme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The objective of this Skill Certification Scheme is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. Individuals with prior learning experience or skills will also be assessed and certified under Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).

Having enrolled 20 lakh youths last year, Government of India has restructured its signature skilling scheme, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), for skilling 1 Crore more people in 4 years. The new version of the scheme, launched on 15th July 2016 by the Hon’ble President of India, is aligned to the Common Norms and designed to ensure greater social and geographical inclusion - with a greater focus on employment and in close partnership with State Governments. The new version of the scheme contains the following components:

a.   Short Term Training: Providing 60 lakh youth the opportunity to get trained, assessed and certified according to the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF).

b.   Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): Aligning the competencies of 40 lakh individuals from the un-regulated workforce to the NSQF.

c.    Special Projects: Enabling a platform that will facilitate trainings in special areas and premises of Government bodies and corporates.

d.   Traditional Apprenticeship:  The certification of Kaushal Mitras (Master Crafts Persons) who will then impart traditional art and craft skilling to their apprentices

e.    Kaushal and Rozgar Melas: Organised every 6 months by Training Partners to ensure the scheme’s reach and success far and wide

f.     Placement Assistance: Linking the aptitude, aspiration and knowledge of PMKVY candidates to potential employers

g.    Continuous Monitoring: Using technology driven methodologies to ensure high standards of quality are maintained by Training Centres

Under PMKVY, training and assessment fees are paid by Government of India.

Source : [ PIB ]

Press Information Bureau
Government of India
Special Service and Features
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana: A Perspective

       *Rajesh Agarwal

Every year more than 13 million Indians enter the working age. The country has an annual training capacity of 3 million on adding up all the training and educational capacities in ITI s, polytechnics, graduate colleges, professional colleges etc. It takes 1 year to 4 years to create an educated/ skilled Indian. Therefore even if a rapid capacity building spree is undertaken, this gap of more than 10 million is very difficult to bridge as the long gestation periods for training make the pace of skilling slower than the pace at which new Indians are entering the working age. Addressing this issue is critical to realizing the demographic dividend potential of India.  

It is in the above context that Government of India created a separate Ministry for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship which launched the flagship skill development scheme by the name of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) to provide fresh impetus to competency based skill development in India. The objective of this skill certification and reward scheme is to enable and mobilize a large number of Indian youth to take up outcome based skill training, become employable and earn their livelihood. This scheme would also addresses lack of industry driven competency based training institutions and hence address some of the market failures pertaining to competency based training.

The Scheme was launched on 15 July, 2015, on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day by Honourable Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The first year (2015-2016) of the scheme was utilized in setting the right foundations to further scale up the scheme. Since then this scheme has been a major source of skilled manpower to the employers especially the informal sector.

Employment and unemployment surveys (EUS) conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation for 2011-12 estimated employment in the informal component to be about 75 per cent of total usual status employment (principal and subsidiary) in the rural areas and 69 per cent in urban areas. The figures for informal employment are likely to be even larger because enterprises identified as “employer’s households”, which account for employment like the provision of domestic services, are excluded from the definition of the informal sector.

PMKVY has a crucial role to improve productivity in the informal sector through creation of a pool of industry and National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) aligned skilled workforce. PMKVY (2016-2020) requires that at least 70% successfully assessed trainees are provided with wage employment. The scheme provides incentives to Training Providers for successfully attaining the required placement norms. Being a flagship skill development scheme, providing a significantly large pool of skilled manpower trained on industry aligned NSQF standards to informal sector for improved productivity is a key impact of this scheme.

There are significant number of job roles in the PMKVY training ecosystem which readily lend themselves to creation of microenterprises. Select examples of such job roles for which training is undertaken in PMKVY include Self-employed tailor, Hand embroider, Small poultry farmer, E-rickshaw driver and service technician, Carpenter, Stitching operator (partially in traditional clusters across the country), etc. This is resulting a creation of new microenterprises by skilled and competent PMKVY trainees. Recent mobile app based market aggregators like Urban Clap, Housejoy, etc have provided a further fillip to the available self-employment avenues in select trades.
As part of the state component of the scheme, state skill development missions are encouraged to undertake traditional apprenticeship training in artisan and handicraft clusters of the concerned states.  Creating a pool of next generation skilled craftsmen is extremely critical to preservation of traditional art and craft heritage of the country. Select pilots like training on Chikankari, Handmade sports goods, etc have already been approved under the PMKVY scheme
The Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) component of PMKVY is primarily focussed on assessing and certifying the skills of informal sector workers. Evaluation of trade learned skills and certification through assessment helps the trainees through increased mobility options to the formal sector employment. In certain cases, it has been observed that RPL certification has helped workers negotiate better wages and open possibilities for some vertical progression in their careers.  In almost all cases, trainees have displayed enhanced self-confidence and pride through attainment of skill certificates.
While the first year of the scheme provided an opportunity to firm up the foundations of the program, it also threw up quite a few lessons. Thus, when the Union Cabinet approved the Scheme for another four years (2016-2020) to impart skilling to 1 crore youth of the country with an outlay of Rs.12,000 crores, it was felt that this scheme extension should be based on three key pillars:
1.      Standardization of training infrastructure and developing clear quality benchmarks for training centres
2.      Relentless focus on placements as a measure of final outcome
3.      Promotion of transparency through an objective and process based decision making framework
Basis the above three principal pillars, a slew of reforms measures were implemented for PMKVY (2016-2020):

1.        Accreditation and affiliation of training centres
A new process of training centre accreditation and affiliation shifts the focus from training providers to training centres. Sector Skill Councils have developed detailed infrastructure guidelines basis which an inspections are undertaken. The accreditation decision is based on the training centre rating and grading methodology. The concerned Sector Skill Councils provide affiliation to a training centre for the approved job roles. This process extensively leverages technology through inspection and self-reporting apps providing for geo-stamped and time-stamped pictures. A dedicated online portal ( has been developed to support this process.
2.        Standardization of course content
Sector Skill Councils have published model content curriculum for trainings prescribed under PMKVY (2016-2020) thereby ensuring standardized quality of text books. A standardized induction kit is also provided to all trainees at the commencement of the training.
3.        Mandatory Training of Trainers
Trainers have to mandatorily undergo the ‘Train the Trainer’ program of the concerned Sector Skill Councils.
4.        Unique enrolments and Aadhaar based attendance system
Aadhaar ID of all trainees are validated at the time of batch creation which prevents bogus enrolments. Further, at this stage a duplication check is also carried out to weed out candidates who may have earlier received similar training in the NSDC ecosystem. Attendance through Aadhaar Enabled Biometric Attendance System (AEBAS) is mandatory under PMKVY. Training Providers in select states of North East and J&K, where Aadhaar penetration is low, are required to capture attendance through a biometric device.
5.        Mobile application for assessments
A new mobile app for evidence based assessments is under development.

It is envisaged that the above interventions would lead to better training outcomes which will ultimately reflect in the quantum and quality of placements. 70% wage employment post training has been made mandatory under the scheme and the training providers have been incentivised accordingly.

PMKVY has taken some big strides in providing competency based training on a massive scale and prescribed quality. It is successfully pushing the frontiers of attitude, knowledge and skill of Indian workforce especially those employed in the informal sector. Going forward, the current focus of the scheme on entry level job roles will be expanded to include appropriate interventions along the entire occupational path of focus trades. Properly designed upskilling and reskilling initiatives will have to be suitably incorporated in the scheme.  This has become especially critical in the context of anticipated disruptions due to Industry 4.0. Hence, this scheme will evolve to include perhaps longer duration trainings on cutting edge skills for some higher learner segments like graduates. Over time, the scheme should provide a comprehensive and holistic workforce training interventions by catering to current and anticipated future employment ecosystem.


*Author is Joint Secretary, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Government of India.

Source : PIB
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PIB press release regarding approval of the scheme:

Press Information Bureau 
Government of India
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana 

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, today gave its approval for the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) with an outlay of Rs.1500 crore.

This will be the flagship scheme for skill training of youth to be implemented by the new Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The scheme will cover 24 lakh persons. Skill training would be done based on the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and industry led standards. Under the scheme, a monetary reward is given to trainees on assessment and certification by third party assessment bodies. The average monetary reward would be around Rs.8000 per trainee.

Out of the total outlay of Rs.1120 crore to be spent on skill training of 14 lakh youth, special emphasis has been given to recognition of prior learning for which an amount of Rs.220 crore has been provided. Awareness building and mobilization efforts would be focused for attention, for which Rs.67 crore has been provided. Mobilization would be done through skill melas organized at the local level with participation of the State Governments, Municipal Bodies, Pachayati Rai Institutions and community based organizations. The focus under the scheme is also on mentorship support and placement facilitation for which an outlay of Rs.67 crore has been provided. An allocation of Rs.150 crores has been made for training of youth from the North-East region.

Highlights of skill training would be that it would be done on the basis of demand assessed on the basis of recent skill gap studies conducted by the NSDC for the period 2013-17. For assessment of demand of Central Ministries/Departments/State Governments, industry and business would be consulted. A demand aggregator platform would be launched for the purpose very soon. The target for skilling would be aligned to demand from other flagship programmes launched in recent times such as Make in India, Digital India, National Solar Mission and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Skill training under the new scheme will primarily be focused on a first time entrants to the labour market and primarily target Class 10 and Class 12 drop outs.

The scheme would be implemented through NSDC training partners. Currently NSDC has 187 training partners that have over 2300 centres. In addition, Central / State Government affiliated training providers would also be used for training under the scheme. All training providers will have to undergo a due diligence before being eligible for participating under this scheme. Focus under the PMKVY would be on improved curricula, better pedagogy and better trained instructors. Training would include soft skills, personal grooming, behavioral change for cleanliness, good work ethics. Sector Skill Councils and the State Governments would closely monitor skill training that will happen under PMKVY.

Skill Development Management System (SDMS) would be put in place to verify and record details of all training centres a certain quality of training locations and courses. Biometric system and video recording of the training process would be put in place where feasible. All persons undergoing training would be required to give feed back at the time of assessment and this would become the key element of the evaluation framework to assess the effectiveness of the PMKVY scheme. A robust grievance redressal system would be put in place to address grievances relating to implementation of the scheme. An online citizen portal would be put in place to disseminate information about the scheme.


Source : PIB
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